The Spanish had a positive effect on Aztec civilization because they helped modernize the society. They have spearmen, bola-throwers, and have (as upgrades), the great Inca road systems, cotton armor, and Chasquis messengers. During the siege of Tenotitlian, for example, the Spanish and their allies were severely outnumbered, yet the city fell to them. Many parts of the empire maintained their cultural identity, and were at best restive participants in the imperial project. In the meantime, Atahualpa ruled from captivity and ordered his brother Huáscar to be killed. Minster, Christopher. Bad Omens During the reign of King Montezuma II, the Aztecs had seen several bad omens. It was at this precise moment, when the Empire was in ruins, that Pizarro and his men showed up: they were able to defeat the weakened Inca armies and exploit the social rifts that had caused the war in the first place. The Inca Empire at the time of the Spanish arrival, Chronology of events through the last years of the Inca Empire, Effects of the conquest on people of the Empire. This time, the Incas were ready. The long term effects of the arrival of the Spanish on the population of South America were simply catastrophic. Cortés and his men used over a dozen large portable guns, mainly for their shock value against the Aztecs. pp. Major Inca generals such as Quisquis and Rumiñahui fought pitched battles against the Spanish and their Indigenous allies, notably at the 1534 Battle of Teocajas. Atahualpa stated that he was no one's vassal and asked where they got their authority. Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in the Inca religion. In 1532, Atahuallpas army defeated the forces of his half-brother Huascar in a battle near Cuzco. Pizarro's conquest of the Incas was also made possible by the use of gunpowder, a substance the Incas didn't have at their disposal. Prior to Francisco Pizarro’s successful removal of Atahualpa in 1532, the Spanish had already made substantial territorial gains in the Americas. A rumor began to grow of a mountain kingdom, richer than even the Inca had been, somewhere in northern South America. The Incas were eventually defeated due to inferior weapons, 'open battle' tactics, disease, internal unrest, the cunning, boldness and steely courage of the Spanish, and the capture of their emperor. In less than a century the empire had grown in extent from about 155,000 sq mi or 400,000 km2 in 1448, to 690,000 sq mi or 1,800,000 km2 in 1528, just before the arrival of the Spaniards. Spanish Conquest of the Inca & Aztec Empires in the Americas Eun Young Shin Background In order to find a faster and safer route to Asia, Columbus set sail to the west and unintentionally came across the "New World" in 1492. Other factors in the Spaniard's favor were their steel swords, helmets and armor, against the Inca forces which only had leather armor and crude armament. When both Huayna Capac and his eldest son and designated heir, Ninan Cuyochic, died suddenly in 1528 from what was probably smallpox, a disease introduced by the Spaniards into the Americas during their conquest of Mexico, the question of who would succeed as emperor was thrown open as Huayna had died before he could nominate the new heir. Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. At the time of Huayna Capac's death Huáscar was in the capital Cuzco, while Atahualpa was in Quitu with the main body of the Inca army. The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. How long did the civil war last? The situation went quickly downhill. If the Aztecs and Incas were conquered because of disease, how were the Aztecs and Incas still able to send so many reinforcements? The conquest of the Inca was essentially a long-term armed robbery on the part of the conquistadors. Spanish forces ousted the last Inca holdout of Vilcabamba in 1572 and enforced a harsh rule of law on the local population. Later, Atahualpa's generals, fearing for his safety in captivity, did not attack the Spanish while there were still only a few of them in Peru: one general even believed Spanish promises of friendship and let himself be captured. Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. 119–138. The Spanish also had three small cannon which were used to great effect on the crowded town square. Spanish weaponry was far superior to anything used by the Aztecs or Incas. After years of preliminary exploration and military skirmishes, 168 Spanish soldiers under Francisco Pizarro and their native allies captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa in the 1532 Battle of Cajamarca. Ascent of Manco Inca: In 1532, the Inca Empire was picking up the pieces after a long civil war between brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar.Just as Atahualpa had defeated Huáscar, a far greater threat approached: 160 Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro.Pizarro and his men captured Atahualpa at Cajamarca and held him for ransom. Jared Diamond: This is Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard who conquered the most powerful state in the New World, the Inca Empire. Good question… Firstly, the first conquistadors were the ones in trouble with Spanish authorities… They needed to get the gold as soon as possible… They only had one way ticket. The majority of Atahualpa's troops were in the Cuzco region along with Quisquis and Challcuchima, the two generals he trusted the most. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, that shortly after would be called Viceroyalty of Peru. The resulting dispute led to the Inca Civil War. Atahualpa and his forces met with the Spaniards at Cajamarca on the evening of 15 November. When the Spanish returned, they brought an army with them. This told the Spaniards that they were not dealing with a fearful one like Moctezuma II in Mexico and it gave them even more fear the night of the 15th and early on the 16th. The Spanish had heard tales of gold and riches in the Inca Empire and wanted to increase their wealth. This was a major disadvantage for the Inca and their undoing was due to a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. Others mentioned that Huáscar had been previously killed in battle, and a few others that Huáscar was killed before Pizarro's arrival. In battle, a skilled Spanish horseman could cut down dozens of Indigenous warriors. Later, Gonzalo Pizarro led an uprising against the so-called "New Laws" of 1542, an unpopular royal edict which limited conquistador abuses: he was eventually captured and executed. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid. “The Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro invaded the Incan Empire in 1532, seeking riches. 1. As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, claiming to have educated them in the ways of the "one true religion." With four lieutenants that he could fully trust, Pizarro was able to destroy the Empire and rein in the greedy, unruly conquistadors at the same time. Hernando de Soto was one of Pizarro's most trusted lieutenants: later he would go on to explore parts of the present-day USA including the Mississippi River. In the ensuing battle Huáscar was captured, and resistance completely collapsed. The Incas even imposed their own art across the empire as a way to visually impress exactly who was the ruling class. Pizarro is best known for expeditions to South America, beginning in 1523, his conquest of the Inca Empire by defeating a 30,000-strong Inca force with fewer than 200 troops, and his capture of the emperor, Atahuallpa. It was part of the deal with the Spanish King to take priests along to convert the natives. He demanded a full accounting of their behavior in his country and an apology from their leader Pizarro. The first target of the Spanish attack was the Inca Emperor and his top commanders; once these had been killed or captured the Inca forces were disorganized as the command structure of the army had been effectively decapitated. Spaniards executing Túpac Amaru, the last Inca of Vilcabamba, in 1572. In the play, Pizarro, Atahualpa, Valverde and other historical figures appear as characters. Most accounts agree, however, that Atahualpa met with Pizarro voluntarily. Pizarro was uneducated but clever enough to exploit the weaknesses he swiftly identified in the Inca. Pizarro's conquest of the Incas was also made possible by the use of gunpowder, a substance the Incas … Seed, Patricia (1991). The people of Quito proved particularly fierce, fighting the Spanish every step of the way to their city, which they burned to the ground when it became apparent that the Spanish were certain to capture it. Unknown to Pizarro, as he was lobbying for permission, his proposed enemy was being devastated by the diseases brought to the American continents by the earlier Spanish contacts. They thought that by joining the Spaniards, they could gain their own freedom. Under the pretense of performing religious ceremonies in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. In 1532, Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro first made contact with the mighty Inca Empire: it ruled parts of present-day Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, and Colombia. Under Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438–71) the Inca conquered territory south to the Titicaca Basin and north to present-day Quito , making subject peoples of the powerful Chanca, the Quechua , and the Chimú . Above the town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is hewn out of the rock. A.Skromnitsky/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain. According to Aztec religion, these omens meant that something bad was going to happen. "The Neo-Inca State (1537–1572)". Why was there a civil war among the Incas? Became wealthy, controlled education and politics and became landowners. During the 15th century, successive Sapa Incas pushed the borders of the empire to the north and south with military force. He recommended trapping the men inside of their sleeping quarters and burning them to death. From two young local boys who he had taught how to speak Spanish in order to translate for him, Pizarro learned of the civil war and of the disease that was destroying the Inca Empire.. Bored with administering Central America, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. The Spanish took all the gold they could carry, killed the Sapa Inca, and fled. This meant that once the Spaniards held the emperor hostage, they effectively paralyzed the empires' forces for a time. The Aztecs and Incas always had more than enough soldiers available, even when disease was rampant. Soto rode to meet Atahualpa on his horse, an animal that Atahualpa had never seen before. The first was Prince Túpac Cusi Hualpa, also known as Huáscar, whose mother was Coya (meaning Empress) Mama Rahua Occllo. And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time! Cinquinchara decided they were men because he saw them eat, drink, dress, and have relations with women. Why did the Spanish conquistadors want to conquer the Aztecs and the Incas? Most of Alvarado's men joined Benalcázar for the siege of Quito. This is larger than the other, and surrounded by three walls, rising spirally. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century, as part of the discovery and conquest of the . The victorious generals immediately sent word north by chasqui messenger to Atahualpa, who had moved south from Quitu to the royal resort springs outside Cajamarca. The gold alone is worth over a half-million dollars in today’s money: it went even further back then. Diego de Almagro, originally one of Francisco Pizarro's party, returned from his exploration of Chile, disappointed in not finding any wealth similar to that of Peru. The Inca ruler Topa Inca Yupanqui led a campaign which conquered the Chimú around 1470 CE. Some accounts say that Atahualpa sent messengers with presents to Pizarro and his men to induce them to leave, and others contend that it was Pizarro who sent a messenger to Atahualpa requesting a meeting. He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. The Inca treated their subjects fairly, unlike the Aztec, which might be why the Inca ruled their empire better than the Aztecs. The system declined because the Spanish royalty did not want a class of powerful nobles to arise in the colonies. To avoid this, Atahualpa ordered Huáscar's execution, which took place not far from Cajamarca according to some chronicles. Inca Civil War. Spanish Conquest of the Inca & Aztec Empires in the Americas Eun Young Shin Background In order to find a faster and safer route to Asia, Columbus set sail to the west and unintentionally came across the "New World" in 1492. He conquered the Incas. The Inca Empire was a vast empire that flourished in the Andean region of South America from the early 15th century A.D. up until its conquest by the Spanish in the 1530s. Though the historical accounts relating to these circumstances vary, the true motivations for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience, in that the Inca did not adequately understand the conquistadors' demands. Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conqueror of the Inca empire and founder of the city of Lima. new world. Their adoption of the rapidly-spreading Spanish language would be symptomatic of the loss of their culture and land (one of the richest in America) at the hands of the Spanish invaders. "Only Emperor") in Cuzco, but the army declared its loyalty to Atahualpa. 189–203. Why was there a civil war among the Incas? For four years, a bloody civil war raged over the Empire and in 1532 Atahualpa emerged victoriously. One reason why the spanish easily conquered the americas was the aztecs and incas lacked - 13192941 mmalik97 mmalik97 09/06/2019 Social Studies Middle School +5 pts. After four long expeditions, Pizarro established the first Spanish settlement in northern Peru, calling it San Miguel de Piura. 13. This was just fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. In November of 1532, Inca Emperor Atahualpa was captured by the Spanish: he had agreed to meet with them, feeling that they did not pose a threat to his massive army. The civil war between Atahualpa and Huascar would weaken (and perhaps more importantly, distract) the empire immediately prior to its struggle with the Spanish, although it is unclear how much of a difference a united Inca Empire would have made in the long term due to factors such as disease, and to the fact that the Inca military technology was vastly inferior to that of the Spaniards, who possessed horses, metal armor, swords, cannons, and primitive, but effective, firearms. The basic policy of the Spanish towards local populations was that voluntary vassalage would yield safety and coexistence while continued resistance would lead to more death and destruction. In front of the plaza, towards the open country, a stone fortress is connected with it by a staircase leading from the square to the fort. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca; he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace. The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry "Santiago! The Inca Empire had been collecting gold and silver for centuries and the Spanish soon found most of it: a great amount of gold was even hand-delivered to the Spanish as part of Atahualpa’s ransom.
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