Diverse forms of the Eucharistic prayer … Agitation for creating new alternatives to the Roman Canon was intensifying especially in Holland, and new prayers were published by Dutch and Flemish bishops and used without authorization from Rome. Church teaching places the origin of the Eucharist in the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, at which he is believed to have taken bread and given it to his disciples, telling them to eat of it, because it was … ", The anaphoras currently used by the Syro-Antiochene Rite (or West Syriac Rite) are numerous and the main are:. 30 “Au cours des derniers mois,” Notitiae 4 (1968) 148-155; DOL #244, pp.614-619. requested a new Eucharistic Prayer either to replace the Roman Canon or to use as an alternate.2, On the other hand, several Fathers in commenting on article 37/50, stressed that the Canon should not be touched. La comparaison est boiteuse.” Bernard Botte, “Où en est la réforme du Canon de la Messe?“, Les Questions Liturgiques et Paroissiales 49 (1968) 139. Study Group 10 of the Consilium and its work on the Ordo Missae (1965). Eucharistic Prayer III. The letter of the Secretary of State also included the following directives which would later appear in the Instruction on Eucharistic Prayers put out by the Congregation for Divine Worship: * Episcopal Conferences must put an end to experimental Eucharistic Prayers. The Anaphora is the most solemn part of the Divine Liturgy, or the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, during which the offerings of bread and wine are consecrated as the body and blood of Christ. Most of these texts became parts of anaphorae still in use. It is appropriate that the commemoration of the … Pope Paul VI, on February 28, 1972, in an audience with Bugnini (whom he had ordained a bishop on February 13, 1972) also issued a kind of rebuke: “I once again strongly urge the Congregation for Divine Worship to try to control the tendency to multiply Eucharistic Prayers,” adding a number of clarifications: * Other Congregations competent in the matter were to be consulted in these matters (translation: Divine Worship shouldn’t be acting on its own); * Liturgical uniformity should be stressed; * Episcopal conferences do not have the authority to introduce new Eucharistic Prayers unless they have received permission from the Holy See (Bugnini, pp. Although the documents of the Second Vatican Council did not mention new Eucharistic prayers, private initiatives to revise the Roman Canon and/or to compose new Eucharistic Prayers were being made as early as 1963 by theologian Hans Küng. Vagaggini’s book — in spite of everything — is an important piece of work. These requests received a decidedly negative reaction at the ordinary joint meeting of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. Since the door remained partly ajar, people made bold to knock. The earliest text similar to the Roman Canon is the quoted in De Sacramentis of Ambrose which include prayers close to the Canon's prayers such as Quam Oblationem, Qui pridie, Unde et Memores, Supra quae - Suplices te. Father Cassian Folsom, O.S.B., is a scholar of sacred music and liturgy, a cancer survivor, and the founder and prior emeritus of the Monks of Norcia. 10 Bernard Botte, “Où en est la réforme du Canon de la Messe?“, Les Questions Liturgiques et Paroissiales 49 (1968) 138-141. The Holy See reserves to itself (emphasis in original) the authority to prepare new Eucharistic Prayers in particular cases” (Bugnini, p.475, n.33). What we have here, says Jungmann, is the personal theology of the author (emphasis added), not the universal theology of the Church.31 In addition, it must be noted that while Vagaggini’s pneumatological preoccupation is in itself praiseworthy, it is anachronistic to blame an ancient text for lack of clarity in this area, especially when the Roman canon was composed quite outside of the ambit of fourth-century doctrinal controversies over the nature and role of the Holy Spirit. It was decided to act upon Pope Paul’s instructions by adopting two already-existing anaphoras, that of Hippolytus (the inspiration for Eucharistic Prayer II) and the Alexandrian anaphora of St. 19 Cf. For some 1600 years previously, the Roman rite knew only one Eucharistic Prayer: the Roman canon. 31 Es ist nicht nur der ökumenische Zug unserer Zeit, der sich der Denkweise orientalischer Theologie anzunähern bestrebt ist, sondern darüber hinaus — man muss nur Vagagginis Darstellung liturgischer Grundbegriffe vor Augen haben — auch ein gutes Stück persönlicher Theologie des Verfassers.” Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 11. 3 2. Who Prays the Eucharistic Prayer? These six reasons do not pretend to be exhaustive. Jungmann’s conclusion: “Thus, when the question of a new canon is posed — and this should not be sought in the first place in a totally new composition, or in the (admittedly not impossible) borrowing of a foreign anaphora, but in a way that the timeless and worthy elements of our own tradition are not abandoned but are purified and further developed — then, for the reasons given, one will not find in Vagaggini’s work the desired solution. 2. 4 Hans Küng, “Das Eucharistiegebet: Konzil und Erneuerung der römischen Liturgie“, Wort und Wahrheit 18 (1963) 102-107. There were those, however, who saw the action as a way of preventing possible concessions of further Eucharistic Prayers” (Bugnini, p.484). 2. Then follows the … The suggestion was tempered, however, by the proviso that the conference must first request authorization, then prepare the text, which must be submitted to the competent agencies of the Holy See (Bugnini, p.472). The Ambrosian Rite during the centuries has lost its ancient variety, even if it maintains a richness of choices for the Preface and its first Eucharistic Prayer is slightly different form the Roman one mainly in the Words of Institution. Some of the consultors of the Congregation, who had not been polled on these questions, but who felt very strongly about them, published their own findings, coming to quite opposite conclusions, namely that it was inopportune to compose new Eucharistic Prayers in addition to the ones already in the Roman Missal. 5. But revisions are always dangerous, especially when they mean tampering with texts that have so venerable a tradition behind them. How much more time does it add to the Mass: three or four minutes perhaps? We would soon realize just how serious are the liturgical and pastoral problems arising from the text. All Rights Reserved. The first reason is quite straightforward. 7 I am following the story as given by Annibale Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy: 1948-1975 (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1990), pp.105-107. One feature that eventually became a part of all the early Eucharistic prayers was the Sanctus hymn, based on Isaiah 6:3 … Pope Paul VI followed Bugnini’s lead, and permission was granted on July 8, 1975.27. messages and emissaries between the Netherlands and Rome in order to resolve the problem. 20 For the complete text, see Bugnini, p.474. A sixth reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many is a very simple shift from old-rite formalism to new-rite formalism. c. July 10, 1967: In view of the forthcoming Synod of Bishops, Pope Paul VI wrote to the Consilium with these instructions: “You are authorized to prepare a booklet [containing the new anaphoras] that is to be given to the Fathers of the coming Synod; all things considered, however, it is advisable that the formula of consecration not be changed.”13. Some Ethiopian monasteries use additional Anaphoras as a local practice. According to this spirit (which is legion), the supreme criterion is brevity. Eucharistic Prayer I is the 1600 year old Roman Canon, and begins the Institution by saying, “ T he day before He suffered, He took bread in His sacred hands, and looking up to heaven, to You, His Almighty … 3… International Commission on English in the Liturgy, Documents on the Liturgy: 1963-1979 (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1982), #241, pp.608-609. Bugnini’s reaction demonstrates that the Study Group was working on quite a different wave length than the Holy See. Dissatisfaction with the Roman Canon and architectural functionalism. Bugnini, p.465). This was not always so, however. Especially if said aloud, the Roman Canon would become burdensome due to its very changelessness and to some elements that are too narrowly local, such as the lists of the saints…. In the average parish today, Eucharistic Prayer II is the one most frequently used, even on Sunday. the Preface), the Post-Sanctus and the Post-Pridie, that is the prayer said between the Institution narrative and the doxology in place of the Intercessions which are placed before the Sursum Corda. “This did not happen” (Bugnini, p.465). The progressive tendency of the group is clear. This section, corresponding to the Preface in the Roman Rite, gives thanks to God for the mysteries of creation, redemption, and sanctification. In a very schematic way, these are the steps which the texts of the new Eucharistic Prayers went through in order to receive final approval (cf. The hieratic, sacral and transcendent emphasis of the Roman canon, in contrast, was viewed as out of date and theologically incorrect. Of the three new texts which were eventually approved, one is very short (EP II), one of medium length (EP III) and one is rather long since it includes a summary exposition of the entire economy of salvation EP IV). This is a fourth reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many. I really did not believe it. The eucharistic prayer … Part I of this three part essay, which appeared in the September issue, began the history of the multiplication of alternatives to the Roman Canon (now known as Eucharistic Prayer I). Several meetings made it clear that it would be difficult to obtain approval for these; the Consilium therefore suggested that the Dutch wait for the new Eucharistic Prayers then being composed (Bugnini, p.461, n.7).6. Official documents published by the Consilium in order to justify the change, repeat this same line of argument. What became evident was that the right hand did not know what the left hand was doing. The Antiochene Maronite Church is one of the richest in the number of anaphorae contained in its Liturgy, most of them belong to the tradition of the Antiochene rites. 5) Are the guidelines set down in Chapter VI for preparing and evaluating Eucharistic Prayers acceptable? Modern houses, on the other hand, are usually functional and efficient, but often built of cheap materials, and very frequently unattractive to the eye. In that case it would also feel obliged to see to it that any new prayer still displayed the Roman genius, so that the Roman Mass would continue to be faithful to the spirit of the Roman liturgy (Bugnini, p.449). The response of CDF was in the negative. As Bugnini reports, “the Pope’s decision was brief and to the point: ‘The present anaphora is to be left unchanged; two or three anaphoras for use at particular specified times are to be composed or looked for. 2 For a later historical survey which mentions this intervention, cf. note 6. There was no clear agreement, however, about the role of the Congregation for Divine Worship in guiding or directing the composition of these prayers. When referring to the Western Christian uses, the term "Eucharistic Prayer" is more used than "anaphora", and sometime it refers only to the portion of the anaphora starting after the Sanctus because the Preface in the Latin rites is variable and follows the liturgical year. Since I rely heavily on Bugnini’s account of this period and quote him frequently, all citations of his work will henceforth appear in the body of the text. In The Celebration of the Eucharist, Enrico Mazza offers a thorough account of the theology of the Eucharist and presents a historical analysis of the origin and variety of eucharistic … and "Drink ye all of this; this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins." G. Caprile, Il Concilio Vaticano II, vol 2: Il primo periodo 1962-1963 (Roma 1968), p.114. One of the main reasons given for proposing these new anaphoras was the principle of variety. On the contrary the Western Church had for centuries only one anaphora, the Roman Canon, but it has variable parts according to the liturgical year, mainly the Preface. 26 Cf. '” (Bugnini, p.450). Before use of the prayers is allowed, they should be submitted to the episcopal conferences for study, and the faithful should be carefully instructed in advance. Bugnini reports that “the group held its fourth and final meeting on September 25-26, in a somewhat “disheartened” atmosphere” (Bugnini, p.473). Of course, post hoc does not necessarily mean propter hoc. The Apostolic See will set forth the norms to be observed in each case. 3) Eucharistic Prayer III may be used with any of the prefaces; like the Roman Canon, it is to have precedence on Sundays and holydays. In Egypt we have the Anaphora of Barcellona (and its related Louvain Coptic Papyrus), the Prayer into the Euchologion of Serapion, the Deir Balyzeh Papyrus, the Strasbourg papyrus and the ancient Anaphora of Saint Mark in Greek, which developed in the Coptic Liturgy of Saint Cyril. An analysis of why this happened, on the other hand is, of its very nature, more speculative. Part One: The Eucharistic Prayer 1. 9 Philippe Béguerie, “La Prière Eucharistique“, Notitiae 20 (1984) 196. The Congregation for Divine Worship then dutifully drafted the Instruction in the form of a circular letter on January 20, 1973. Such as they are, however, perhaps they can serve as a stimulus for discussion. The Latin text of the two reconciliation anaphoras was not published until 1983, on the occasion of the special Jubilee Year of the Redemption: Notitiae 19 (1983) 270-279. These questions are the subject matter of this essay. Online Edition – Vol. I find it difficult to isolate a word or phrase in a particular eucharistic prayer. Signals were unclear, however, since the Congregation for Divine Worship gave permission for quite a number of Eucharistic Prayers for special groups and special occasions.19. b. And the shortest Eucharistic Prayer is II. V. The Lord be with you. Although they were disappointed that their suggestions had not been well received, they persisted in their recommendation that episcopal conferences be given permission, under certain conditions, to compose new Eucharistic Prayers. Bugnini describes the situation for us: The Roman Canon was the most sensitive and complex problem of all. Draft texts went back and forth between the Congregation for Divine Worship, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Secretariat of State (cf. Hence the following modest proposal instead: Why not use the Roman canon more frequently, and come to love it by using it? In order to prepare these texts, another study group was set up. When referring to the Western Christian uses, the term "Eucharistic Prayer" is more used than "anaphora", and sometime it refers only to the portion of the anaphora starting after the Sanctus because the Preface in the Latin rites is variable and follows the liturgical year. More Eucharistic Prayers are called for; the Holy See is neither to prepare these prayers nor provide models for them; instead Episcopal conferences should be able to compose new prayers on their own authority. 470-471). There should not be only three further Eucharistic Prayers, but a good many more: these should be taken from the Eastern liturgies. This anthropological principle — the role of memory — is played out in actual practice: Eucharistic Prayer II and III are used so often that most people have them memorized. DOL #248, pp.623-629. What happened? Two such initiatives were published in scholarly journals: that of Hans Küng4 in 1963 and Karl Amon5 in 1965.6 Many other newly-composed Eucharistic Prayers followed, some of them published, some of them not. Bugnini personally, however, lobbied the Holy Father to make some sort of positive gesture even if the entire request could not be granted: namely, that Belgium be allowed one of the five anaphoras requested, and that the Netherlands be allowed continued use of the Eucharistic Prayer that had already been approved for the Dutch Pastoral Colloquium the year before. The Dutch Episcopal conference, in the person of Bishop Jean Bluyssen of Hertogenbosch, president of the national liturgical commission and himself a member of the post-conciliar commission for the carrying out of the liturgical reforms (hereafter referred to as the Consilium), made an official request to the Holy See for permission to use these texts. (This norm, in effect, expands the use of this Eucharistic Prayer; the most outstanding distinctive feature referred to being its brevity). R. It is right and just. that the Congregation for Divine Worship should prepare guidelines for the episcopal conferences to use in making their own judgments). Each eucharistic prayer has its own internal logic, its own way of unfolding the sacrifice and paschal mystery. Thus a special study group was appointed on September 17, 1971 to look into the matter. 3. A third reason for the changes can be found in the secular and theological Zeitgeist — the spirit of the times — of the late sixties. The Eucharist as Memorial 5. For the English translation, cf. God the Father is invoked to send down the Holy Spirit in order to, according to the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, "...make this bread the precious Body of thy Christ... And that which is in this cup the precious Blood of thy Christ... Changing them by thy Holy Spirit." So “[w]ith this green light from the Holy Father, the Consilium set to work immediately.”. There are at least seventy-two Maronite Anaphorae. e. The publication of the new Eucharistic Prayers was delayed, however.  The "notion of a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving", dating back to Irenaeus, is emphasized in the United Methodist Church's "anamnesis and offering: 'And so in remembrance of these your mighty acts in Jesus Christ, we offer ourselves as a holy and living sacrifice, in union with Christ's offering for us, as we proclaim the mystery of faith: Christ has died...'" The Methodist Rite, as with the Presbyterian liturgy, places the Memorial Acclamation "after the anamnesis and offering". The Eucharistic Prayer itself was not originally a concern of the Consilium, but rather the revision of the Ordo Missae. Cf. The Western Rite Orthodoxy uses adaptations to the Orthodox nous of the Roman Canon (Divine Liturgy of Saint Gregory) or of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (Divine Liturgy of Saint Tikhon) or own reconstructions of ancient Gallican liturgies (Liturgy of Saint Germanus or The Liturgy of Saint John the Divine). The Sanctus. 28 This volume was published in 1968. In addition, the Congregation for Divine Worship was to send a letter to the presidents of the episcopal conferences indicating that each conference could choose one prayer from each category. Decades of scholarly research in the area of the anaphora, both eastern and western, had resulted in a considerable corpus of primary texts and a corresponding body of secondary literature. The Eucharist as Meal 4. The structure of the standardized 4th century Antiochene anaphora, which is placed after the offertory and the Creed and comes before the Lord's Prayer, the Elevation and the Communion rites, can be summarized as follows::6. The Eucharist, Church Unity & Ecumenism 9. The more ancient text of the Basilean family of anaphoras was found in 1960 in a Sahidic Coptic version, possibly a text written by St. R. We lift them up to the Lord. Because of these differences, it is essential that eucharistic liturgy be studied from a historical perspective. Special requests continued to come in from Belgium and the Netherlands in order to obtain official approval for the experimental anaphoras which had been in use since 1969 (cf. As can be seen, not all the modi followed the same line of argument. A request soon came for special anaphoras for the 1975 Holy Year; permission was granted on October 29, 1973. It was often posited that as long as the Roman canon was said in the original Latin, no one was very much aware of its flaws — the presupposition being that the average priest’s knowledge of Latin was not sufficient to discern such things. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 14:45. Copyright © 2020 Adoremus. According to Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, longtime secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship, “This kind of variety seems needed if the Roman liturgy is to have the greater spiritual and pastoral riches that cannot find full expression in a single type of text” (Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy, p.452). 484-485). Liturgical historian Josef Jungmann counters this critique of Vagaggini’s by pointing out that Vagaggini is a systematic theologian who wanted to impose a certain preconceived theological structure on the Eucharistic Prayer. Brazil also received permission for a new anaphora on November 11, 1974 for its National Eucharistic Congress. Jungmann refers to Vagaggini’s famous book, Il senso teologico della liturgia to reinforce his argument. The Armenian Rite, used mainly by the Armenian Apostolic Church, uses currently the Anaphora of St. Athanasius.  All the new Eucharistic Prayers follow the Antiochene structure with the noticeable difference that the Epiclesis is placed, according to the uses of the Roman tradition, before the Words of Institution and not after. He had an audience with Pope Paul on December 21, 1972, in which he explained the position of Divine Worship: the Church was faced “with a widespread phenomenon which, it seems, cannot be handled by simply prohibiting it or by ignoring it, but only by channeling it so that the Holy See can still be in control.” The Pope then stated his decision: “No to any further experiments. At the third meeting, January 25-26, 1972, the group, comprised of 17 members, voted on four questions (cf. 4) Should the episcopal conferences be able to compose new Eucharistic Prayers that satisfy criteria set down by the Holy See and are then submitted to the latter? After the Sanctus follows a recapitulation of salvation history, especially the Incarnation, and leads into the words of Jesus over the bread and wine at the Mystical Supper, as Eastern Christians often refer to the Last Supper: "Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you, for the forgiveness of sins." Bugnini attributes the delay to the “usual interferences.” In addition, the Secretary of State insisted on January 28, 1968, that a suitable instruction be issued along with the new texts. First, they are dialogues between God and the gathered assembly… On June 22, 1971, a reply came from the Secretary of State: “Given the extent of the indiscriminate use of unapproved Eucharistic Prayers, the Holy Father wishes that a careful study be made of the problem in all its aspects, in order to find a solution that will remedy this serious situation of undisciplined liturgical practice” (Bugnini, p.467). Scholars find structural similarities in between the Roman and Egyptian anaphoral traditions::141 for instance the Barcelona Papyrus, as well as Deir Balyzeh Papyrus, include an epiclesis before the Words of Institution as in the Roman Canon. By formalism I mean the desire to observe the prescribed rituals, but to get them done as quickly as possible so as to move on to more important things. The third Anaphora (Anaphora of Nestorius) is also in use. The clear consensus of the group was that more Eucharistic Prayers should be allowed. Liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, "General Instruction of the Roman Missal, par 79", From One Eucharistic Prayer to Many: How it Happened and Why, "General Instruction of the Roman Missal, par 365", Texts of all the current Catholic Eucharistic Prayers, Historical Evolution of Ethiopian Anaphoras, Explanation of the Maronite Divine Liturgy and its Traditions, Communion and the developmentally disabled, Historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anaphora_(liturgy)&oldid=1001621924, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Eucharistic Prayer n. 1: it is the ancient, Eucharistic Prayer n. 2: it is based on the ancient. 24 For information about the composition of these texts, cf. Switzerland, on the occasion of its synod, received permission on February 13, 1974 for one Eucharistic Prayer with four thematic variations (as a result it actually seems like four different prayers). Bugnini remarks that the value of the vote was “quite relative” because the Fathers were not voting as actual representatives of their episcopal conferences, but as individual bishops (Bugnini, p.351). Arising from the Holy See choir and Congregation singing the Sanctus its very nature, more speculative world, was. A larger number of votes placet iuxta modum expressed the same, but not further... Before joining the monastic community in Rome the end of 1977 the permission was granted on 8! Fact, this was a very modest document, Eucharistiae participationem,21 published on April 27 1973. 1969 ) della liturgia to reinforce his argument the form of a letter. To respond to the architectural untidiness of the Consilium, but practically speaking most! 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