The type was quickly put to use outside of North Africa, seeing limited service against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front where, between 1941 and 1943, together with C.200s, the fighter reportedly achieved an 88 to 15 victory/loss ratio. Ingegner Mario Castoldi, the designer of the 202 questioned whether Reiner had properly flown the test. 2000 Héja I of the Hungarian MKHL 1 and 2/1 Vadászszázad, as well as IAR 80C and Bf 109E/G of Romanian FARR 4 and 5 detached at the same base and Saki (Crimea) in a holding action against the VVS armada of 2,000 aircraft, at a time when the Axis air forces only countered with 300 operative aircraft, which were further constrained by having very small quantities of fuel, munitions and equipment available. The surviving aircraft were operated by the Aeronautica Militare Italiana, where they were used as trainer aircraft as late as 1948 before being phased out entirely. "Via da Korba, con ogni mezzo" (in Italian). Emiliani, Angelo – Giuseppe Ghergo – Achille Vigna.  The 4° Stormo C.202s flew the first sortie, on 21 April, claiming a Spitfire V, while escorting three more "recce" Macchis from 54º Stormo. The Macchis of two groups at Korba were forced to concentrate 40 C.202s (both 7° and 16°, 54° Stormo), and on 8 May 1943, almost all their C.202s were destroyed on the ground by marauding Spitfires. Italian Aces of World War Two written by Jim H March 18, 2010 When a fighter pilot shot down a minimum of 5 planes (kills), he (in the case of Russians it could also be she) could claim the status of Ace. During March 1944, they were scrambled for the first time against an American raid west of Zagreb, but combat was avoided: Croatian Macchi pilots had been initially instructed to attack only those aircraft which had already been damaged or had become separated from their main formations. Italian Macchi C.202 Folgore fighter plane of World War II. Publisher unknown, 2008.  The prototype differed in some respects from the production aircraft; the headrest fairing incorporated two windows for rear visibility, while production versions replaced this with a narrower, scalloped headrest.   Only eleven aircraft were repaired by 10 May 1943 and retreated to Italy. Nearly 34,000 Me 109s were built throughout the course of the war, with licensed models adding another … This infographic shows the main types of fighter aircraft deployed by the Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) in World War Two. Italeri is ranked #1 out of 6 italian world war ii airplane model kits manufacturers, followed by Trumpeter, and Hobby Boss. The wing was a bi-longeron structure, which was attached to the fuselage center section via steel forgings; it was fitted with flaps that were both statically and dynamically balanced. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z).  However, the Macchi's main weakness, its weak armament, proved to be a problem even at this stage. It was operated mainly by the Regia Aeronautica (RA; Royal (Italian) Air Force) in and around the Second World War. , During Operation Harpoon, one of two simultaneous Allied convoys sent to supply Malta in the Axis-dominated central Mediterranean Sea in mid-June 1942, C.202s were involved in clashing with Sea Hurricanes. "Macchi Folgore" (in Italian). It had a very small cockpit and no rear facing windows, which was very unusual for a reconnaissance plane. or Best Offer. This, coupled with the 32 Cant Z.1007s, was one of the most powerful fighter forces that the Italians fielded in the war, and constituted almost a tenth of the overall Folgore production.  During a period of intensive activity over the summer, the squadron had claimed some 20 Allied aircraft shot down.  The C.202 carried as standard two 12.7 mm (.5 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns. However, the Black Widow was worth it. ", This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 10:53. "La Produzione Aeronautica nella II GM." There are a total of [ 32 ] WW2 Italian Fighter Aircraftentries in the Military Factory. It was operated mainly by the Regia Aeronautica (RA; Royal (Italian) Air Force) in and around the Second World War. Mattioli, Mario. The airport was already the base of Gruppi 7º and 16º from 54º Stormo equipped with some C.202s besides the Macchi C.200s and Fiat CR.42s. Fighter / Fighter-Bomber / Reconnaissance Aircraft. , Situated behind the engine and under the 12.7 mm (.5 in) ammunition boxes there was a single 270 L (71.3 US gal) fuel tank; all tanks were of the self-sealing variety. While waiting for domestic production of the engine by Alfa Romeo to ramp up, Aeronautica Macchi decided to import a single DB 601Aa engine; this was initially performed as a private venture without any state support.  Another of its positive attributes was its extremely strong construction, which allowed its pilots to dive the aircraft steeply.  The C.202 also had its defects: like its predecessor, the C.200, it could enter a dangerous spin. Following the 1943 Armistice with Italy, the type was mostly used as a trainer aircraft. , Initially, all the armament was fitted within the nose of the Macchi. Designed in 1940, production started early in 1941 but by the time the Nazis invaded there were only 249 available.After the factories were moved out of range of the Germans production soon skyrocketed and the IL-2 became ” as essential to the Red Army as air and bread,” as Stalin put it. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. , From early October 1941, the Italian units commenced extensive operations over Malta, which provided many opportunities for encounters with RAF fighters. As a reconnaissance plane/torpedo bomber, Botha had quite a long list of drawbacks. The first batch of 16 "Folgores" delivered to the ZNDH was from the XII series, built by Breda following the German occupation of Northern Italy. The amount produced was actually 1,106 and not 1,220 as previous stated. , When they were able to conduct combat operations, the C.202 were frequently flown as escorts alongside their older C.200 siblings for Fiat BR.20M and Caproni Ca.311 bombers in attacks against Soviet columns, during which they would typically be facing aerial opposition from great numbers of Soviet Air Forces (VVS) fighters.  This fairing was shaped into an inverted 'T' which enabled the pilot to have a reasonable field of view to the rear.  SAI-Ambrosini, based in Passignano sul Trasimeno, also served as another sub-contractor on the C.202, ultimately building around 100 fighters of the type.  The undercarriage was of a standard design; the two widely set hydraulically-actuated main gears retracted inwardly into recesses set into the wing, while the tail wheel was non-retractable. "Hawker in Mediterraneo (in Italian). Corgi World War II Diecast Military Aircraft The air war in Europe helped decide the outcome of the war.  By the end of the year, the growing strength of the Allied forces was overwhelming and after the defeat in the skies over Malta as well as El-Alamein the last operational Axis units lost their air superiority in the Mediterranean. , As a result of the favourable flight test reports, the C.202 was immediately ordered into production; the first examples (built by Macchi as Serie II) appearing in May 1941. The Macchi's mass was around 300 kg (660 lb) higher than the comparable Bf 109E German fighter, consequently, the power-to-weight ratio was considerably lower while wing loading was higher. $39.99. The Macchi C.202 Folgore (Italian "thunderbolt") was an Italian fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by Macchi Aeronautica.  For some time, supplies of the DB 601 engine continued to be provided directly from Germany in order to supplement Italian production. Ghergo, Federico. WW2 Italian Canopy (x13) Set #1: Macchi Reggiane Fiat Caproni (1/72 Falcon #20) $23.95. , Following its initial flights, the prototype was flown to the Regia Aeronautica's main test airfield at Guidonia, where it reportedly met with an enthusiastic response from test pilots. Armament Italian WW2 Aircraft  Jettisonable tanks, containing either 22 or 33 gallons of fuel, could be installed upon some of the later built aircraft.  The Macchi could out-turn the Spitfire, but the Folgores suffered from the lack of a more powerful armament and, without radios, the Regia Aeronautica pilots were forced to communicate with one another by waggling their wings and, consequently, had to adopt formations that were too tight and less effective in combat. V in ever-increasing quantities. During one such mission, on 11 December 1942, which involved the escorting of several Junkers Ju 52s en route to Stalingrad, Tenente Pilota Gino Lionello was shot down and forced to bail out from his Folgore. Conceptual and prototype designs evolving during the war are also included in this listing. Some defects appeared similar to those on the early C. 200 version: on 3 August, during a mock dogfight, Sergente Maggiore Antonio Valle – an experienced pilot, credited with two kills in Marmarica and recipient of a Medaglia di Bronzo al Valor Militare (Bronze Medal of Military Valor) – at a height of 4,000 meters entered in a flat spin and could not recover or bail out, losing his life. Apart from the ailerons, the entire trailing edge of the wing was dominated by a pair of all metal split flaps. , On 21 August 1941, Tenente Giulio Reiner, one of the most skillful and experienced pilots of 9° Gruppo, flew the "military control flight" in Lonate Pozzolo, The Ufficio tecnico (Technical Bureau) recorded the maximum speed of 1,078.27 km/h in the Folgore in a vertical dive, with 5.8 G. forces while pulling out of the dive. , The main coolant radiator was housed in a rectangular fairing under the fuselage beneath the cockpit, and the oil cooler was placed under the nose within a streamlined, rectangular housing. On the night of 28 December 1941 the SAS managed to destroy a further nine aircraft. Key Point: The Focke-Wulf FW-190 not only was a superb daytime fighter but was also used extensively as a night fighter, interceptor, and ground attack aircraft on the Eastern, Western, and Italian Fronts. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation.  The relatively high diving speed of the type has been attributed to the exceptionally clean design of its fuselage. While originally designed in the 1930s, the Me 109 was such a versatile fighter that it remained in use by other countries (including Israel) well after the war. The C.202 series, powered by an inline engine, was a further Macchi development of the radial-engined C.200 Saetta monoplane fighter.  Eastern front veteran Major Josip Helebrant, an 11-kill flying ace (used to flying Bf 109Gs) and the CO of 2./(Kroat. , The presence of the Folgores in Maltese skies was to last only until the end of November, when most of the unit was transferred to the deteriorating North Africa front. This is a list of aces in World War II from Italy.A flying ace or air ace is a military …  From the cockpit aft, the fuselage was formed into a round monocoque structure; the aft fuselage tapered into the tail and contained the radio, oxygen and flight control mechanisms. [page needed], The empty weight of the new C.202 (approximately 2,350 kg/5,180 lb) gradually increased throughout production, and due to the thickness of metal used it was also comparatively heavy, yet this class of aircraft was still considered lightweight compared to other contemporary fighter designs. Others served as trainers in the Axis-aligned Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana (National Republican Air Force) of the Italian Social Republic (RSI) and the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). Both pilots flew with 51° Stormo C.T., the most successful Italian unit over Malta, having reportedly achieved a score of 97 aircraft destroyed for the loss of only 17 Folgores. , In order to expand production, the Milan-based industrial manufacturer Società Italiana Ernesto Breda was selected to also construct the C.202. From the early dogfights between Spitfires and Messerschmitts in the skies over Britain to the bombing raids and fighter escorts late in the war, the history of this monumental conflict is rendered in striking detail and authenticity by the master model makers at Corgi. JGr 1 and retained their Luftwaffe markings whilst in service with the unit. Castoldi, whose background included working on Schneider Trophy racers design, followed Celestino Rosatelli as the main designer of new fighters for the RA. Williams, Anthony G. and Dr. Emmanuel Gustin.  Furthermore, it was increasingly recognised that 20 mm cannons were required in order to cause enough damage, thus a mixture of Bf 109F/Gs, Macchi MC.205s and Fiat G.55s were deployed to replace the remaining C.202s as soon as possible. , After the abandonment of advanced airfields between December 1942 – January 1943 at Voroshilovgrad, Stalino and Tscerkow, the Italian air units were operated in a series of defensive actions against a more potent Soviet air offensive, consisting mainly of Ilyushin IL-2s Shturmoviks and Petlyakov Pe-2s. , One of the differences between prototype and series production was the lack of radio antenna and the retractable tailwheel (these differences resulting in a slightly higher top speed); the difference in speed was not so great and so, the series version had the fixed tailwheel and the radio antenna. "The Macchi-Castoldi Series". During September 1944, Luftwaffe pilots flew all of the remaining airworthy Folgores to Borongaj, where they were used only for training. The birth of the best Italian fighter plane of WW2, the Macchi C.205V Veltro was harassed by high authorities within the Italian Air Ministry who, for some reasons, preferred to support the all-new Fiat G.55 Centauro and Reggiane Re 2005 instead of moving ahead at a much faster pace with a natural development of an already well-established MC.202 Folgore. It happened after a very brief war career that began in 1939 and lasted for only 18 months. On 6–7 March 1943, C.202 pilots claimed 19 RAF and two USAAF aircraft, for the loss of two Folgore. The forward section housed both the main armament and the Alfa Romeo RA.1000 R.C.41-I Monsone engine, the latter of which drove a Piaggio P1001 three-blade, variable pitch, constant speed propeller. Type: Single-seat fighter plane. Designed by Northrop, only around 700 were built, and at a cost of $190,000 per plane, they were among the most expensive American fighter plane of ww2.  The performance figures gathered during these tests indicated that Italy had caught up with both Britain and Germany in the field of fighter airplanes.  Their pilots started to train on the new fighter in May–June 1941, at Lonate Pozzolo (Varese), the airfield of the Macchi.  However, it was during this time that the Axis had to abandon their plans for the invasion of Malta (known as Operation C 3) due to the aircraft and men being necessary elsewhere.  Macchi chief of design Mario Castoldi commenced work on mating the Macchi C.200 wings, undercarriage, vertical and horizontal tail units to a new fuselage that incorporated the imported DB 601Aa. The Breda design was as heavy as the Browning M2, the model from which it was derived.  On July 28, 1943, Luftwaffe Oberleutnant Erwin Clausen shot down another two B-17 Flying Fortresses to add to the two he had shot down the previous day. The Yak-3 was evenly matched against the German Bf 109 and Fw 190 fighters, but sometimes could also perform the impossible. It was designed around the proven and powerful Daimler-Benz DB605 engine (along with the Reggiane Re.2005 and Fiat G.55, also very good planes in their own regard). , The Macchi C.202 was flown by almost all of the most successful Italian aces: Adriano Visconti, Luigi Gorrini, Franco Lucchini, Franco Bordoni Bisleri, Furio Niclot Doglio and top scorer Sergente Maggiore Teresio Vittorio Martinoli, credited with 22 individual "kills" plus two probables, as well as 14 shared.  However, the complexity of the structure was not well suited to mass production, and resulted in a relatively limited production rate. Two weeks later, another four aircraft arrived; one of these was reportedly lost during a test-flight.  During its service life, the C.202 was deployed on all fronts in which Italy was involved. It also saw limited use on the Eastern Front. Some of these aircraft later fought during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the State of Israel; the Egyptian fighters were reportedly still in service as late as 1951.  The 4º Stormo flew its last mission on Malta on 19 May before moving back to North Africa. This aircraft was both fast and maneuverable. 1° Stormo had 60 fighters, 17°Gruppo around 30. Jul 3, 2016 - Images and profiles of WW2 Italian Macchi M.C.200 Saetta fighter. Because no transport aircraft were available every surviving fighter had two men inside, a pilot and a mechanic.  However, different sets of radio sets and accompanying antenna were installed upon some aircraft.. By November 1941, the C.202 had appeared on the Libyan front. Feb 8, 2020 - They had a certain style,just like their motorcycles and the Folgore and SM79 Sparviero are my favourites.  The radios were unreliable, routinely forcing pilots to communicate by waggling their wings and Western historians regard the C.202 as insufficiently armed, being furnished with just a pair of machine guns that had a tendency for jamming. A second training / operational conversion squadron was also formed, designated 3./(Kroat. There are a total of [ 359 ] WW2 Fighter Aircraft entries in the Military Factory. From its initial combat missions, the C.202 displayed marked superiority over the Hawker Hurricane II, which formed the island's main form of aerial defence at the time. The Breda fired 12.7x81 mm "Vickers" ammunition — while its cartridges were longer than the 13 x 64 mm rounds of its German rough equivalent, the MG 131, the 81 mm Italian rounds were still shorter than the standard 12.7x99 mm rounds of the American "Ma Deuce"; with the result that the energy at the muzzle was 10,000 joules vs. 16,000. Although these forces were insufficient they nevertheless achieved notable successes. Data from The Macchi C.202 The Complete Book of Fighters, Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, Sgarlato Nico, Folgore Monography Feb 2008, Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia, List of Regia Aeronautica aircraft used in World War II, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Around June 1944, the Croat unit received the last six Folgore and three or four brand new Macchi C.205s. During April 1942 the 4° Stormo solved the frequent problems to the oxygen masks by adopting the German Dräger "oxygen apparatus" that already equipped the Bf 109s. Shop online for 8 italian world war ii airplane model kits at discounts up to 21%. Ww2 AircraftFighter AircraftMilitary AircraftOld PlanesAir FighterAircraft PaintingMilitary PicturesVintage AirplanesAircraft Design Italian Aircraft 1939–1945–Overview Of the aircraft used by the major powers during the Second World War least has been written of those produced by Italy's aircraft industry. Power countries make an attempt to control the skies and drop bombs capable of destroying their enemy into submission. History: One of the … Macchi C.202 Folgore read more » Among the pilots who flew recce C.202s on Malta was Adriano Visconti, later to become a famed ace and credited with at least 10 air victories. "Macchi Folgore" (in Italian). By the end of 1942, U.S. B-17 and B-24 strategic bombers had begun launching daytime raids on Italian cities, and the Italian Regia Aeronautica badly needed more cannon-armed fighters to have any hope of shooting the huge aircraft down. As per company tradition, Macchi aircraft designed by Mario Castoldi received the "C" letter in their model designation, hence the Folgore is commonly referred to as the C.202 or MC.202. However, by 1941, the C.200, which was armed with a pair of 12.7 mm (.50 in) machine guns and capable of a maximum speed of 504 km/h (315 mph), was considered to be obsolete in comparison to competitors in production overseas.  However, according to authors Jeffery Ethell and Pietro Tonizzo, that ratio refers only to the C.200 "Saetta".  Throughout the type's production life, manufacturing was near-permanently constrained by the limited availability of the engine. The P-51D Mustang is considered by many to be the #1 fighter aircraft of WWII. The canopy was hinged on the starboard base and opened sideways. Pages in category "World War II Italian fighter aircraft" The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. ", Massiniello, Giorgio. See more ideas about fighter, italian air force, ww2 aircraft. The Macchi C.202 Folgore is regarded as the most successful Italian fighter aircraft of World War Two. Green, William. The C.202 were also regularly used to escort CANT Z.1007bis during the latter's reconnaissance missions, as well as for German transport aircraft. From the onset of flying trials, it was evident that the C.202 was an advanced design for the era, owing much of its performance to the use of the Daimler Benz DB 601, which represented a departure from the standard practice of using engines of Italian origin. During November 1939, the Italian automotive company Alfa Romeo acquired a license to produce the DB 601Aa as the Alfa-Romeo RA.1000 R.C.41-I Monsone; it was this engine that was to be used in the production of the C.202. According to aviation author Giuseppe Ciampaglia, in comparison to the Bf 109E/F, which was rated at typically requiring 4,500–6,000 man-hours per aircraft to complete, the Macchi routinely needed in excess of 22,000 man-hours. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily the primary operator.  During late 1941, it commenced offensive operations over Malta and in North Africa, where Italian and German forces were engaged in heavy combat against British and later American operations. See more ideas about fighter, ww2 aircraft, italian air force. Continue Scrolling to See Additional Entries. Mixed units (such as the 51° Stormo, Sardinia) were formed with C.202s, yet were often serving with C.205s as well. 96 international aviation awards during this period for each type are displayed below in order. And two USAAF aircraft, Italian air force ( hereafter RIAF ) a. July 1943, C.202 pilots claimed 19 RAF and two USAAF aircraft, Italian air force, WWII aircraft [! 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